PG Dissertation Writing



  1. Make your abstract as informative and  attractive. 
  2. Structured Abstract includes: Follow the order of the main text (e.g., IMRAD).
    1. Objective of the study: Background for the study and should state the purpose of the study; What did you hope to discover?
    1. Study Design: What did you hope to discover?
    1. Study Settings: Where was study undertaken? A general not specific description.
  3. Methods: How did you perform the study?
    1. Selection of study participants
    1. What was done?
    1. Outcome measurements (Main measures used).
  4. Results: What did you find? Include main findings (provide statistical and clinical significance, and specific effect sizes if possible).
  5. Conclusions: What do your findings mean? Should be related to the objective and make conclusion should be supports by study results or findings.
  6. Key words: Select four-five key words,  these  should be key terms  used in the title and the introduction.
  7. Randomized control trial abstract should include items that the CONSORT group has identified as essential ( /resources/ downloads/extensions/consort-extension-for -abstracts-2008pdf/).
  8. Since abstracts are the only applicable portion of the article indexed in many electronic databases, and the only portion many readers read, so report accurately.
  9. Avoid any wordplay, jargon and  limit the use of abbreviations.
  10. Stands on its own without need to read the paper.
  11. Follow the correct style and format recommended by the respective journal.
  12. Stays within the allowed word count (<250 words).
  13. Do not include references.


  1. Boutron I, Altman DG, Moher D, Schulz KF, Ravaud P. CONSORT Statement for Randomized Trials of Nonpharmacologic Treatments: A 2017 Update and a CONSORT Extension for Nonpharmacologic Trial Abstracts. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2017 Jul 4;167(1):40–7.
  2. Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.
  3. Annesley TM. The Abstract and the Elevator Talk: A Tale of Two Summaries. Clinical Chemistry.2020;56 (4): 521–524.

“All our dreams can come true if we have the courage to pursue them.” – Walt Disney.


  • Title
  • Authors
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Acknowledgments
  • Supplementary data.
  • Title:

 It should be concise, informative, effective, attractive, and novel.It should include the independent variable (Intervention) and study population.It should have fewest words (<40 words).

Journal articles with short and catchy titles are better cited.

  • Author’s Name and Institutional Affiliation:

Provide clear details about communication address and email.

  • Abstract:

(< 250 words)make it as clear, accurate and specific, informative, attractive, and effective.

It should be a summary of the overall study and having important findings, including background, methods, results, and conclusion further 4-5 Keywords.

  • Introduction:

(<10% of the total number of words in the manuscript)

What are you doing?

One or two paragraphs states the background of the study.

The background of the study includes population incidence and prevalence and explain in brief intervention, comparator group, and outcome in brief.

Review of literature: Support your idea and identify the research gap.

Objectives of the study: It should include independent variable ( Intervention), dependent variable(Outcome measure) and study population.

The hypothesis of the study: State Null hypothesis.

  • Materials and Methods: 

(Explain in detail so that reader can reproduce it)

How are you going to do?

Institutional review board approval

Describe new interventions/methods in detail, known methods/ conventional methods in brief.

Include the material used as well as information about their manufactures.

State outcome measures used as primary and secondary outcome measures and who is measuring, how many times you are measuring.

  • Results:

Briefly report key findings of the study, results of the statistical analysis

What did you obtain?

In the case of experimental study such as Randomized controlled control trial uses the CONSORT flow chart for participants flow.

Briefly report the most important findings and then refer to tables and figures.

Avoid bar and line graphs.

Include Ahigh-quality illustrations.

No duplication of results described in text or other illustrations.

Do not include long tables.

  • Discussion:

Heart of the manuscript, what do the results mean?

The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and compare your study results.

What could be the reasons for the obtained results?

Use the supporting literature to compare and contrast your results with those of the other studies.

Explain the possible reasons or scientific explanation for results outcome.

Brief limitations or shortfalls of the study.

  • Conclusion:

Do not use new statements in conclusions

It should be simple and should list all the objectives mentioned in the introduction.

  • Acknowledgments:

Acknowledge the people who contributed, assisted, and helped your study especially participants, supporting staff, financial supporters, and English grammar proofreaders, typists and statistical analysis assistance, advisors, suppliers who may have given materials.

  • References:

Follow the reference style according to the journal manuscript submission format usually it is MLA, APA, and Vancouver format, the spelling of author names, the year of publication, mind  punctuation use.

  • Supplementary data: Include if any details of materials and methods, protocols and outcome measures.


  1. Faber J. Writing scientific manuscripts: most common mistakes. Dental Press J Orthod. 2017 Sept-Oct;22(5):113-7.         
  2.  Faber J. How to write the introduction of a scientific article. J World Fed Orthod. 2012 Dec;1(4):e133.
  3. Faber J. The most common mistakes authors make in the Material and Methods section. J World Fed Orthod. 2013;2(1):e1.
  4. Pierson DJ. The top 10 reasons why manuscripts are not accepted for publication. Respir Care.2004;49:1246-12512.
  5. Cook C, Brismee JM, Courtney C, Hancock M, May S. Publishing a scientific manuscript on manual therapy. J Man Manip Ther. 2009;17(3):141-147.
  6. Shah J, Shah A, Pietrobon R. Scientific writing of novice researchers: What difficulties and encouragements do they encounter? Acad Med. 2009;84(4):511-516.
  7. Nahata MC. Tips for writing and publishing an article. Ann Pharmaco. 2008;42:273-277.
    2. Dixon N. Writing for publication: A guide for new authors. Int J Qual Health Care. 2001;13:417-421.
  8. Hoogenboom BJ , Manske RC. How to write a scientific article. The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2012;7(5):513.       

What is your opinion on this review? do you agree or if you have better one please suggest me.

Purusotham Chippala

Professor in Physiotherapy

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